Our project was very technologically ambitious, and we bit off a lot stitching together various open-source solutions to create a kind of publishing "platform" with WMS and SSI capabilities. Architecting and planning took considerable research and experimentation, but we committed to a plan 1Jan and are more than halfway to a working end-to-end prototype. What follows below is a detailed overview of the architecture we landed on, which might be overkill for non-technical readers.
API / Backend Server
To build a full-featured content API would beyond of the scope of this project; our goal instead was to identify the best open-source components that could be combined to meet all our functional requirements:
- REST API to be consumed by client app
- Content type customization to support our specific needs
- Content ownership and ACL to allow simultaneous utilization of the app by different publishers
- Extensible through plugin architecture to support authentication using SSI (more on that bellow)
We chose Strapi as our base for the backend development and have been finding it quite straightforward and full-featured.
UI / Front End app
The front-end of this platform will be of utmost importance in launching this project as a hosted platform some day, but for now, in the spirit of the GftW grant, we are trying to prototype a minimum viable project, maximizing for reusable open-source functionality. As such, we are focusing first on the main goal of our intended future front-end is to allow publishers to upload their publications as PDF files, define royalty structures for each piece of content, and digitally sign both in a portable, binding way: verifiable credentials. These can be downloaded by publishers as receipts, are embedded in the final PDF publication, and can be consumed and processed by customized PDF readers. Our front-end currently includes one such custom PDF reader, but our modular architecture allows upgrading or swapping out any given element.
Our frontend requirements for now are:
- Server Side Rendering (SSR): custom metadata for each page to allow content-level web monetization hooks and, some day, content-level royalty structures for monetization
- Single Page Application functionality whenever possible
- Convenience of modern web application libraries and frameworks
- Possibility to render PDFs without allowing download and printing, to allow for a "WMS Paywall" in-browser without having to establish a direct payment or subscription.
We have decided to develop the frontend app using Next.js.
As "stretch goals", more likely to be addressed after the grant period, we want to support multiple payment systems and publication channels for these signed, authenticated publications. Some day, we want to make these royalty schemes codified in the publications consumable by payment systems to allow micropayments and/or automated/smart-contract payments.
Authentication and Infrastructure for portable signatures
The main feature of our project is to add a provenance layer to the publications in a both machine-readable and human-readable way; in other words, encoding into each publication verifiable information about who who created the content and who published it. This is a deep-rooted problem in all web publication, but it is also a structural problem particularly felt in the web monetization community, where fraud is a real concern and disputed originality could even open the door to liability action for lost income! We also consider our work a "down payment" on the long-term goal of not just transparent but verifiable distribution of direct payments between the various parties contributing to content. While most WM use-cases focus on small-scale productions and individual creators, we see real potential for bringing WM to non-profit newsrooms, chapbook presses, academic journals, and many other places where large teams of creators and collaborators do collective, rather than individual, work. These contexts require a more complex licensing and payment model than simple direct payments!
We have advocated for the maximally standards-driven, open-source implementation we could find of Self-Sovereign Identity technology as the infrastructure for handling the these identities and high-value signatures. We are using a backend library called DIDkit and the mobile wallet Credible, both developed by Spruce Systems (USA).
The user can sign up for an "account" with our app using the identity wallet rather than a username/password, and they receive a verifiable credential as "receipt" after confirming her/his email and login to the application using a so-called "verifiable presentation" (i.e., a proof of possession of unique credential). In addition to authenticating with this app, content and royalty structures are both signed with cryptographic material stored securely in the app (in most cases, in the phone's OS-layer keystore). We have developed a Strapi plugin that handles SSI authentication in the backend and integrates with Strapi's built-in ACL system. This plug-in also renders QR codes in the frontend to be scanned by the identity wallet. The triangular synchronisation between the backend, the frontend, and the wallet is achieved using Socket.io
At time of writing, we have most the the architectural components developed and integrated. The user interface is still very much in progress and requires some improvements to be feature complete as a prototype. We still need to implement the code that will embed provenance data into the PDF files, and decide on/design a prototype-grade schema for storing the authorship information and royalties in the document. Our plan after the grant is to refine this schema in alignment with ongoing digital content provenance structures such as the Adobe-led Content Authenticity Initiative and/or the Open Content Certification Protocol (OCCP)(https://posth.me/occp/).
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